Spermatophytes (seed plants): Angiosperms (flowering plants): Eudicots: Core Eudicots: Saxifragales
Dig deeper at SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria.
Check out EDDMapS.org to see where this has been reported.
Learn more about Eurasian Water-milfoil from the Vascular Plants of North Carolina.
Easily confused with M. sibiricum, M. spicatum is an introduced species, now widespread in the eastern US, per Weakley's Flora (2022)
SYNONYMOUS WITH Flora of North America
To see larger pictures, click or hover over the thumbnails.
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org bug_5273022
Leaves in distinct whorls of 4, often looking as if their ends were cut off square w scissors, per Vascular Plants of North Carolina.
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org bug_5330057
Stem diameter below inflorescence is up to 2x diameter of lower stem, per Weakley's Flora (2022).
Graves Lovell, Alabama Dept. of Conservation & Natural Resources, Bugwood.org bug_5400611
All leaves whorled, grayish green. Midstem leaves with 12-25 segments on each side of rachis, per Weakley's Flora (2022).
COMPARE aquatic plants
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org bug_5447206
Flowers/fruits in erect spikes emersed from water, per Weakley's Flora (2012).
Submersed aquatic w flowers & fruits above the surface (rooted); Forb
Habitat: Ponds and impoundments, per Weakley's Flora
Uncommon in NC Coastal Plain (rare elsewhere in GA-NC-SC)
CLICK HERE to see a map, notes, and images from Weakley's Flora of the Southeastern US.
Click here to see a map showing all occurrences known to SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria. (Zoom in to see more detail.)
This plant is causing problems in natural areas outside its native range, according to authorities such as:
- Alabama Invasive Plant Council, 2012
- Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2006
- SC Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Nuisance Species List, 2003
- SC List of Regulated Pest Plant Species, 2017
- Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2009
- US Fish & Wildlife Service
- Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2014
Leaves well-developed: pinnately divided with filiform segments
Submersed leaves whorled. Bracts of emersed shoots different than submersed lvs
Unisexual (rarely bisexual)
Flowers in spikes
Schizocarp of mericarps
TO LEARN MORE about this plant, look it up in a good book!
- Field Guide to Aquatic Plants of Alabama (Lovell, 2007) p45
- Invasive Plants, Guide to Identification, Impacts and Control (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2007) p432
- Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Georgia (Chafin, 2007) p233
If a search such as "Carex leptalea var. leptalea" doesn't deliver the results you want, try "Carex leptalea".
Or, to minimize chances of a misspelling, try just "Carex le".
Less is more: If "pencil flower" doesn't deliver the results you want, try "pencil".
Or try alternate spellings: If "wooly" doesn't work, try "woolly" or just "wool".