OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA

Spermatophytes (seed plants): Angiosperms (flowering plants): Monocots: Liliales

WEAKLEY'S FLORA OF THE SOUTHEASTERN US (10/20/20):
Trillium cuneatum   FAMILY Trilliaceae   Go to FSUS key


SYNONYMOUS WITH PLANTS NATIONAL DATABASE:
Trillium cuneatum   FAMILY Liliaceae

SYNONYMOUS WITH VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS (Radford, Ahles, & Bell, 1968) 041-03-001a:
Trillium cuneatum var. cuneatum   FAMILY Liliaceae

INCLUDING Manual of the Southeastern Flora (Small, 1933, 1938)
Trillium hugeri

 

COMMON NAME:
Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade


         To see larger pictures, click or hover over the thumbnails.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Betsy George    bmg_img_7120

February    Greenville County    SC

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm170226_297

February    Greenville County    SC

Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Harry Davis    hld1544_a

February-March    Oconee County    SC

Oconee Station/Station Cove

The flower has no stalk; it is thus referred to as a sessile flower, per Wild Flowers of NC, 1st edition.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm0403b_08

March    Oconee County    SC

Oconee Station/Station Cove

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm0403c_25

March    Oconee County    SC

Oconee Station/Station Cove

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm090321_043

March    Greenville County    SC

Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve

In general, seeds take 1-2 yrs to produce a mature cotyledon (seed leaf), per Trilliums of Georgia. Tipularia (Patrick, 2007).

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm110313_893

March    Greenville County    SC

Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve

Ovary purplish, about the same length as stamens and 1/3 that of petals, per Trilliums of Georgia. Tipularia (Patrick, 2007).

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm110313_893b

March    Greenville County    SC

Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve

Two pollen sacs (the anther) line a band of sterile tissue (the connective), per Trilliums of Georgia. Tipularia (Patrick, 2007).

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm110313_970

March    Greenville County    SC

Chestnut Ridge Heritage Preserve

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm140322_302

March    Oconee County    SC

Oconee Station/Station Cove

Ants are the primary seed carriers, often discarding seeds near their nests.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm140322_312

March    Oconee County    SC

Oconee Station/Station Cove

Trillium with four leaves are not terribly uncommon.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Keith Bradley    kab_t_cuneatum_1655

March    Polk County    NC

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Ben Geer Keys    bgk1544_b

March?        

Petals purple, brown, green or rarely yellow, >2x long as wide, per Wildflowers of the Eastern United States.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm0404m_11

April    Henderson County    NC

Roadside

Leaves mottled with two colors, per Wildflowers of the Eastern United States.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm150407_125

April    Greenville County    SC

Swamp Rabbit Trail

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm200409_3560

April    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm200414_3803

April    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm200415_3884

April    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

Ovary and stamens should not be this color, but some plants don't read the keys.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm200422_4071

April    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

Wonder what's causing the leaf speckles?

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Keith Bradley    kab_t_cuneatum_02858

April    Polk County    NC

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Richard and Teresa Ware    rtw_t_cuneat_cloudland4_2

April    Dade County    GA

Cloudland Canyon State Park

Sepals lanceolate, 3-5cm long (2/3-3/4 petal length), erect to divergent, per Vascular Flora of the Carolinas.

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Richard and Teresa Ware    rtw_trillium_cuneatum

April        

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm200703_6347

July    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

JK Marlow    jkm220701_8801

July    Greenville County    SC

Tall Pines Wildlife Management Area

image of Trillium cuneatum, Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade

Marian StClair    msc_3059

August?    Greenville County    SC

A lipid-rich food body (elaiosome) is attached to the outer seed coat, per Wildflowers & Plant Communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont.

 

WEAKLEY'S FLORA OF THE SOUTHEASTERN US (10/20/20):
Trillium cuneatum   FAMILY Trilliaceae

SYNONYMOUS WITH PLANTS NATIONAL DATABASE:
Trillium cuneatum   FAMILY Liliaceae

SYNONYMOUS WITH VASCULAR FLORA OF THE CAROLINAS (Radford, Ahles, & Bell, 1968) 041-03-001a:
Trillium cuneatum var. cuneatum   FAMILY Liliaceae

INCLUDING Manual of the Southeastern Flora (Small, 1933, 1938)
Trillium hugeri

 

Find by SCIENTIFIC NAME:

1544

Forb
Perennial

Native to the Carolinas & Georgia

Common to uncommon, locally abundant (rare in SC Coastal Plain)

Habitat: In rich soils of cove forests, moist slopes, and bottomlands, usually over mafic or calcareous rocks, locally abundant, per Weakley's Flora

map
Click here to see a map, notes, and images from Weakley's Flora of the Southeastern US.

Click here to see a map showing all occurrences known to SERNEC, a consortium of southeastern herbaria. (Zoom in to see more detail.)

LEAVES:
Simple
A single terminal whorl of 3 leaves
Leaves sessile

FLOWER:
Winter/Spring
Maroon, yellow, green, or various intermediate shades
Flowers are sessile.
Bisexual
Radially symmetrical
3 sepals
3 petals

FRUIT:
Spring/Summer
Maroon-red
Berry

 

TO LEARN MORE about this plant, look it up in a good book!



 


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