Native & Naturalized Plants of the Carolinas and Georgia

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teaching key OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA

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Drawing

 

 

LEAVES

Leaves are a solid shade of green or bluish-green.

Leaves are mottled in different shades of green.

 

FLOWER STALKS

Flowers borne on stalks, either above or below the leaves.

Flowers are sessile (without stalks).

 

 

STALKED TRILLIUMS (WAKEROBINS) CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS:

Petals with a coarse texture and prominent netted veins, not wavy-margined, not changing colors after pollination, and not overlapping at base (or if overlapping, not forming a tube). These comprise the Erectum complex.

Petals delicately textured with margins that may be wavy, white turning pink after pollination (or pink turning darker pink), loosely to tightly overlapping at base. These are sometimes called the ”trumpet flowers,“ because they often form a tube then flare outward like a trumpet.

Petals delicate with wavy margins, white, usually marked with a red triangular pattern. Leaves bluish- or coppery green with short leafstalks. This is the Painted Trillium.

 

STALK ORIENTATION

Flowers are held about at the level of, or above, the leaves.

Flowers are clearly nodding, somewhat hidden, below the leaves.

 

 

SESSILE TRILLIUMS (TOADSHADES) CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS:

Petals gradually tapered to the base and somewhat overlapping, thus (in side view) mostly concealing the flower's inner parts. Stamens about as long as ovary and ending in blunt tips (not in pronounced beak-like sterile appendages). These comprise the Cuneatum complex.

Petals noticeably narrowed at the base (“clawed”). The flower's inner parts are visible in side view.

Leaf mottling tends to be strong, with 5 shades of green and often a prominent silver stripe. Stamens have pronounced beak-like sterile appendages that extend beyond the anthers.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium cuneatum Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium discolor Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium lancifolium Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii Wateree River Trillium
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium
Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin
Trillium reliquum Relict Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium sessile Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium species 3 Lookout Mountain Trillium
Trillium stamineum Twisted Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium underwoodii Underwood's Trillium
Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium discolor Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin
Trillium reliquum Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium species 3 Lookout Mountain Trillium
Trillium stamineum Twisted Trillium
Trillium underwoodii Underwood's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium decipiens Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium discolor Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium ludovicianum Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium maculatum Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin
Trillium reliquum Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium species 3 Lookout Mountain Trillium
Trillium stamineum Twisted Trillium
Trillium underwoodii Underwood's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium
Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium erectum Wake-robin, Red Trillium, Stinking Willie, Stinking Benjamin
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium simile Sweet White Trillium, Confusing Trillium, Jeweled Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium sulcatum Southern Red Trillium, Barksdale's Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cernuum Northern Nodding Trillium
Trillium flexipes Bent Trillium, Bent White Trillium, Bentstalk Trillium
Trillium rugelii Southern Nodding Trillium
Trillium species 2 Amicalola Trillium
Trillium vaseyi Vasey's Trillium, Sweet Trillium, Sweet Beth

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium
Trillium grandiflorum Large-flowered Trillium, White Wake-robin, Great White Trillium, Showy Wake-robin
Trillium persistens Persistent Trillium, Edna's Trillium
Trillium pusillum + Carolina Least Trillium, Virginia Dwarf Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium catesbaei Catesby's Trillium, Rosy Wake-robin, Bashful Trillium, Rose Trillium

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium undulatum Painted Trillium, Striped Wake-robin

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium cuneatum Little Sweet Betsy, Purple Toadshade
Trillium ludovicianum Louisiana Trillium, Louisiana Wake-robin
Trillium luteum Yellow Trillium, Yellow Toadshade, Lemon Trillium, Wax Trillium
Trillium species 3 Lookout Mountain Trillium

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium discolor Pale Yellow Trillium, Faded Trillium, Small Yellow Toadshade, Savannah River Trillium
Trillium lancifolium Lanceleaf Trillium, Narrowleaf Trillium
Trillium maculatum Mottled Trillium, Spotted Trillium
Trillium oostingii Wateree River Trillium
Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium, Prairie Wake-robin

 

This database doesn't include any Trillium that meet those criteria.

 

Click the SUBMIT button to examine Trillium that meet your criteria (listed below).

Trillium decipiens Chattahoochee Trillium, Deceptive Trillium
Trillium decumbens Decumbent Trillium, Trailing Trillium
Trillium reliquum Relict Trillium
Trillium sessile Sessile Trillium, Sessile Toadshade, Toad Trillium
Trillium stamineum Twisted Trillium
Trillium underwoodii Underwood's Trillium

 

This key was inspired by “Trilliums of Georgia,” Tipularia (Patrick, 2007), and built on that, as well as on the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford, Ahles & Bell, 1968), Weakley's Flora (Weakley, drafts 2008+), and Flora of North America.

Revised 13 Feb 2013.