Native & Naturalized Plants of the Carolinas and Georgia

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teaching key OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA

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habit

 

LEAF ARRANGEMENT

Plants are “leafy-stemmed” and bear flowers from the leaf axils.
Plants appear “stemless” because the stems are not readily visible (leaf and flower stalks arise directly from stolons or rhizomes at the plant's base).

 

FLOWER COLOR

Flowers are blue or violet.
Flowers are white or cream.
Flowers are yellow.
Flowers are multi-colored.

 

FLOWER PETALS

Lateral petals (or more) are “bearded” (with tufts of hairlike trichomes at petal base).
All petals appear to be beardless.

 

LEAF SURFACE

Leaves appear to be glabrous (hairless).
Leaves are somewhat pubescent.

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up
Viola walteri var. appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet

 

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Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola walteri var. walteri Walter's Violet

 

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Viola rostrata Long-spurred Violet

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola rostrata Long-spurred Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up
Viola walteri var. appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola walteri var. walteri Walter's Violet

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola rostrata Long-spurred Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up
Viola walteri var. appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet

 

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Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola walteri var. walteri Walter's Violet

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog-violet
Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up
Viola walteri var. appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola walteri var. walteri Walter's Violet

 

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Viola rostrata Long-spurred Violet

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny-jump-up

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up, Wild Pansy, Field Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

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Viola pubescens Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola pubescens Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

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Viola pubescens Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola pubescens Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Three-parted Yellow Violet, Three-parted Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola brittoniana var. brittoniana northern coastal violet
Viola brittoniana var. pectinata northern coastal violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola esculenta salad violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrow-leaved Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia var. missouriensis Thinleaf Violet, LeConte's Violet, Missouri Violet, Sand Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola hirsutula Southern Wood Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola palmata Early Blue Violet, Wood Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet

 

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Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. ranunculifolia Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet

 

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Viola brittoniana var. brittoniana northern coastal violet
Viola brittoniana var. pectinata northern coastal violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola esculenta salad violet
Viola hirsutula Southern Wood Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola palmata Early Blue Violet, Wood Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. ranunculifolia Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrow-leaved Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia var. missouriensis Thinleaf Violet, LeConte's Violet, Missouri Violet, Sand Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet
Viola subsinuata Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet

 

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Viola brittoniana var. brittoniana northern coastal violet
Viola brittoniana var. pectinata northern coastal violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola esculenta salad violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. ranunculifolia Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrow-leaved Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia var. missouriensis Thinleaf Violet, LeConte's Violet, Missouri Violet, Sand Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola hirsutula Southern Wood Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola palmata Early Blue Violet, Wood Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet

 

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Viola brittoniana var. brittoniana northern coastal violet
Viola brittoniana var. pectinata northern coastal violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola esculenta salad violet
Viola hirsutula Southern Wood Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola palmata Early Blue Violet, Wood Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrow-leaved Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia var. missouriensis Thinleaf Violet, LeConte's Violet, Missouri Violet, Sand Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet
Viola subsinuata Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet

 

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Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. ranunculifolia Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet

 

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Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola incognita sweet white violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola macloskeyi var. pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola incognita sweet white violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola macloskeyi var. pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola macloskeyi var. pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola incognita sweet white violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola incognita sweet white violet
Viola odorata Sweet Violet, English Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia var. sororia Dooryard Violet, Common Wild Violet, Common Blue Violet, Confederate Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola macloskeyi var. pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Round-leaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Round-leaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Round-leaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Round-leaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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This key was inspired by Wildflowers of the Southern Mountains (Smith, 1998), and built on that, the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford, Ahles & Bell, 1968), Weakley's Flora (Weakley, drafts 2010+), and “Violaceae of the Southeastern US,” Castanea (McKinney & Russell, 2002) — who sometimes appear to disagree.... Click here to review the data assembled.

Revised 27 August 2013.