Native & Naturalized Plants of the Carolinas and Georgia

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teaching key OF THE CAROLINAS & GEORGIA

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habit

 

LEAF ARRANGEMENT

Plants are “leafy-stemmed” and bear flowers from the leaf axils.
Plants appear “stemless” because the stems are not readily visible (leaf and flower stalks arise directly from stolons or rhizomes at the plant's base).

 

FLOWER COLOR

Flowers are blue or violet.
Flowers are white or cream.
Flowers are yellow.
Flowers are multi-colored.

 

FLOWER PETALS

Lateral petals (or more) are “bearded” (with tufts of hairlike trichomes at petal base).
All petals appear to be beardless.

 

LEAF SURFACE

Leaves appear to be glabrous (hairless).
Leaves are somewhat pubescent.

 

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Viola appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

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Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola rostrata Longspur Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola rostrata Longspur Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola rostrata Longspur Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

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Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola appalachiensis Appalachian Violet, Henry's Violet
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola labradorica American Dog Violet
Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola rostrata Longspur Violet

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola tricolor Johnny Jump-up, Pansy

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

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Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

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Viola arvensis European Field Pansy
Viola bicolor Johnny Jump-up, American Field Pansy, Wild Pansy
Viola canadensis var. canadensis Canada Violet, Tall White Violet
Viola striata Pale Violet, Creamy Violet, Striped Cream Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Halberd-leaf Yellow Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

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Viola pubescens Downy Yellow Violet, Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Halberd-leaf Yellow Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola pubescens Downy Yellow Violet, Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Halberd-leaf Yellow Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

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Viola pubescens Downy Yellow Violet, Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

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Viola eriocarpa Smooth Yellow Forest Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet
Viola hastata Halberd-leaf Violet, Halberd-leaf Yellow Violet, Spearleaf Violet, Silverleaf Violet
Viola pubescens Downy Yellow Violet, Hairy Yellow Forest Violet
Viola tripartita var. glaberrima Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet
Viola tripartita var. tripartita Threepart Violet, Three-parted Yellow Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola affinis LeConte's Violet, Sand Violet, Thinleaf Violet, Missouri Violet
Viola brittoniana Northern Coastal Violet, Coast Violet, Britton's Violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola edulis Salad Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrowleaf Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Southern Coastal Violet, Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola hirsutula Southern Woodland Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet, Southern Wood Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola palmata Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet, Three-lobed Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Early Blue Violet, Wavy-leaved Violet, Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet, Carolina Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola pedata var. flabellata Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola affinis LeConte's Violet, Sand Violet, Thinleaf Violet, Missouri Violet
Viola brittoniana Northern Coastal Violet, Coast Violet, Britton's Violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola edulis Salad Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola hirsutula Southern Woodland Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet, Southern Wood Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola palmata Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet, Three-lobed Violet
Viola pedata var. flabellata Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrowleaf Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Southern Coastal Violet, Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Early Blue Violet, Wavy-leaved Violet, Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet, Carolina Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola affinis LeConte's Violet, Sand Violet, Thinleaf Violet, Missouri Violet
Viola brittoniana Northern Coastal Violet, Coast Violet, Britton's Violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola edulis Salad Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola pedata var. flabellata Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrowleaf Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Southern Coastal Violet, Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola hirsutula Southern Woodland Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet, Southern Wood Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola palmata Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet, Three-lobed Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Early Blue Violet, Wavy-leaved Violet, Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet, Carolina Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola affinis LeConte's Violet, Sand Violet, Thinleaf Violet, Missouri Violet
Viola brittoniana Northern Coastal Violet, Coast Violet, Britton's Violet
Viola cucullata Blue Marsh Violet, Bog Violet
Viola edulis Salad Violet
Viola egglestonii Cedar Glade Violet
Viola hirsutula Southern Woodland Violet, Silvery Purple-leaf Violet, Southern Wood Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola palmata Wood Violet, Early Blue Violet, Palmate-leaved Violet, Three-lobed Violet
Viola sagittata var. ovata Ovate-leaf Violet, Downy Violet
Viola sagittata var. sagittata Arrowleaf Violet, Arrowhead Violet
Viola septemloba Southern Coastal Violet, Cleft-leaved Violet
Viola septentrionalis Northern Woodland Violet, Northern Blue Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet
Viola subsinuata Early Blue Violet, Wavy-leaved Violet, Wood Violet
Viola villosa Southern Woolly Violet, Carolina Violet
Viola walteri Walter's Violet, Prostrate Blue Violet

 

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Viola pedata var. flabellata Sandhills Birdsfoot Violet
Viola pedata var. pedata Birdsfoot Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet

 

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Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola incognita Disguised White Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola incognita Disguised White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola incognita Disguised White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

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Viola incognita Disguised White Violet
Viola odorata English Violet, Sweet Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet
Viola sororia Dooryard Violet, Confederate Violet, Common Blue Violet

 

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Viola blanda Sweet White Violet
Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata Lanceleaf Violet, Narrow-leaved Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola lanceolata var. vittata Strapleaf Violet, White Bog Violet
Viola pallens Wild White Violet, White Marsh Violet
Viola primulifolia Primrose-leaf Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola rotundifolia Roundleaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

This database doesn't include any Violets that meet those criteria.

 

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Viola rotundifolia Roundleaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Roundleaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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Viola rotundifolia Roundleaf Yellow Violet, Early Yellow Violet

 

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This key was inspired by Wildflowers of the Southern Mountains (Smith, 1998), and built on that, the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas (Radford, Ahles & Bell, 1968), Weakley's Flora (Weakley, drafts 2010+), and “Violaceae of the Southeastern US,” Castanea (McKinney & Russell, 2002) — who sometimes appear to disagree.... Click here to review the data assembled.

Revised 27 August 2013.